Here we present new technology for optical coherence tomography (OCT) that enables ultrahigh-resolution, non-invasive in vivo ophthalmologic imaging of retinal and corneal morphology with an axial resolution of 2–3 μm. This resolution represents a significant advance in performance over the 10–15-μm resolution currently available in ophthalmic OCT systems and, to our knowledge, is the highest resolution for in vivo ophthalmologic imaging achieved to date. This resolution enables in vivo visualization of intraretinal and intracorneal architectural morphology that had previously only been possible with histopathology. We demonstrate image processing and segmentation techniques for automatic identification and quantification of retinal morphology. Ultrahigh-resolution OCT promises to enhance early diagnosis and objective measurement for tracking progression of ocular diseases, as well as monitoring the efficacy of therapy.